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How to Teach Phonics

      by Lida M. Williams 

FOREWORD


Phonics is not a method of teaching reading, but it is _a necessary
part_
of every good, modern method. It is the key to word mastery, and
word mastery is one of the first essentials in learning to read. A
knowledge of the sounds of letters, and of the effect of the position of
the letter upon its sound, is an essential means of mastering the
mechanics of reading, and of enabling children to become independent
readers.

A knowledge of phonics not only gives power to pronounce new words, but
it trains the ear, develops clear articulation and correct enunciation,
and aids in spelling. Later, when diacritical marks are introduced, it
aids in the use of the dictionary. The habit of attacking and
pronouncing words of entirely new form, develops self-confidence in the
child, and the pleasure he experiences in mastering difficulties without
help, constantly leads to new effort.

The little foreigner, greatly handicapped where reading is taught by the
word and sentence methods only, begins on an equal basis with his
American neighbor, when the "Alphabet by sound" is taught.

In recent years only has the subject of phonics found a place on the
daily school program; and there is perhaps, no other subject on the
primary program so vaguely outlined in the average teacher's mind and
therefore taught with so little system and definite purpose.

The present need is a systematic and comprehensive but simple method of
phonics teaching thruout the primary grades, that will enable any
teacher, using any good text in reading, to successfully teach the
phonetic facts, carefully grading the difficulties by easy and
consecutive steps thus preparing the pupils for independent effort in
thot getting, and opening for him the door to the literary treasures of
the ages.

It is with the hope of aiding the earnest teacher in the accomplishment
of this purpose that "How To Teach Phonics" is published.

L.M.W.

 


LEARNING TO READ


Every sound and pedagogical method of teaching reading must include two
basic principles.

1. Reading must begin in the life of the child, with real thought
content. Whether the thought unit be a word, a sentence, or a story, it
must represent some idea or image that appeals to the child's interests
and adjusts itself to his experience.

2. It must proceed with a mastery of not only words, but of the sound
symbols of which words are composed.

The child's love for the story, his desire to satisfy a conscious need,
gives him an immediate and compelling motive for mastering the symbols,
which in themselves are of incidental and subordinate interest. While he
is learning to read, he feels that he is reading to learn and "symbols
are turned into habit."

If the child is to understand from the beginning that reading is thot
getting, we must begin with the sentence, rhyme or other language unit.
If a story is the initial step, a few well chosen sentences that tell
the heart of the story will constitute the first black board reading
lesson.

The next step is the analysis of the sentence, or the study and
recognition of the individual words therein.

Finally the word is separated into its elementary sounds, the study of
the sound symbols growing out of the stock of words learned first as
purely sight words.

Following this phonic analysis comes the final step, the blending of
these phonic elements to produce new words. Thus gradually increasing
prominence is given to the discovery of new words by this
analytic-synthetic process, and less time to sight word drills, until
they are entirely omitted, except for the teaching of unphonetic words.

There should be at least two ten-minute lessons in phonics each day.
These lessons are not reading lessons and should not trespass on the
regular reading period, when thot getting and thot giving are uppermost.

While greater prominence is given to the thot phase in reading, the
technical drill and active effort in mastering the mechanical phase is
of equal importance as necessary preparation for good reading.

 


FIRST YEAR


1. Ear Training:

From the first day a definite place on the program should be given to
phonics. This period, at first very short, will gradually increase to
ten, fifteen or twenty minutes.

To enable pupils to recognize words when separated into their elementary
sounds, exercises in "listening and doing," will constitute the first
step in phonics teaching. Words are sounded slowly and distinctly by the
teacher and pronounced or acted out by the pupils.

ACTION GAME

(First Day.)

 

c-l-a-p s-w-ee-p f-l-y
b-ow d-u-s-t r-u-n
j-u-m-p s-i-t s-l-ee-p
p-u-sh d-r-i-nk w-a-k-e
m-a-r-ch s-t-a-n-d s-t-r-e-t-ch

If at first children are not able to distinguish the words when
separated thus; s-t-a-n-d, d-r-i-n-k, blend the sound less slowly thus:
st-and, dr-ink, gradually increasing the difficulty to st-an-d, d-r-ink,
and finally to the complete analysis.

These ear training exercises should continue until a "phonetic sense" is
established. Not all children can readily blend sounds and "hear the
word." Patient drill for weeks, even months, may be necessary before a
sense of phonetic values is attained. Haphazard and spasmodic work is
fatal to progress; but a few minutes of brisk, lively drill, given
regularly each day will accomplish wonders.

The exercises should be varied from day to day to insure active interest
and effort.

Second Day:

Touch your n-o-se; your ch-ee-k; your ch-i-n; l-i-p-s; k-n-ee; f-oo-t;
b-oo-k; p-e-n-c-i-l; d-e-s-k; sh-o-e; d-r-e-ss, etc.

Third Day:

Place a number of toys in a basket. Pupils find as the teacher sounds
the name of each, saying: "Find the t-o-p"; "the s-p-oo-l;" "the
d-o-ll"; "the h-o-r-n"; etc.

Fourth Day:

Sound the names of pupils in class; or names of animals; colors, fruits,
places, etc.

Fifth Day:

    R-u-n to m-e.
    C-l-a-p your h-a-n-d-s.
    W-a-v-e the f-l-a-g.
    Cl-o-se the d-oo-r.
    F-o-l-d your a-r-m-s.
    B-r-i-n-g m-e a r-e-d b-a-ll.
    B-ou-n-ce the b-a-ll.
    Th-r-ow the b-a-ll to Fr-e-d.
    R-i-n-g the b-e-ll.
    H-o-p to m-e.
    S-i-t in m-y ch-air.
    R-u-n to the ch-ar-t.
    S-i-n-g a s-o-n-g.
    B-r-i-n-g me the p-oin-t-er.
    B-o-w to m-e.
    F-l-y a k-i-t-e.
    S-w-ee-p the fl-oo-r.
    R-o-c-k the b-a-b-y.
    W-a-sh your f-a-ce.
    D-u-s-t the ch-air-s.
    Sh-a-k-e the r-u-g.
    F-ee-d the h-e-n-s.
    C-a-ll the ch-i-ck-s.
    M-i-l-k the c-ow.
    Ch-o-p w-oo-d.
    R-ow a b-oa-t.
    B-l-ow the h-o-r-n.

The pupil should now begin sounding words for himself, at first, if need
be, repeating the sounds after the teacher, then being encouraged to
attempt them alone. He will soon be able to "spell by sound" names of
common objects in the room, as well as easy and familiar words dictated
by the teacher.

 

II. Teach the Single Consonant Sounds.

b, d, f, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, s (as in see), v, w, g (hard), c
(hard), and qu as in queer.

Teach but one sound for each letter at first. Nothing need be said at
this time about the fact that some letters have more than one sound.
When words like "city" or "gem" occur simply explain that sometimes "c"
or "g" has this sound, (giving the soft sound), but continue in the
phonic drill to teach the sounds that will be needed first--those most
often met in the early reading. The sounds of initial s and y are taught
first, rather than final y and s; q is taught with the u--qu (as in
quiet, queer, quick) not q alone.

The sounds must be given distinctly and correctly by the teacher, and
she should insist on perfect responses. Good reading is impossible
without clear and distinct articulation.


1. Analyze Known Words in Teaching the Consonant Sounds.

For the first lesson teach perhaps two consonant sounds. Suppose the
words "ball" and "red" are chosen to be analyzed as words familiar to
the class. (Selected from the reading lessons as the ones best known and
most easily remembered.)

Write "b all" on the board, and pointing to the separated parts, sound
slowly several times. Pupils repeat. Teacher say, "Show the letter that
says 'b.' The part that says 'all.' Write "b" under "ball" thus:

    b all
    b

Pupil sound "b" several times, as it is written elsewhere on the black
board.

Proceed with "red" in the same way. Keep these two forms,

    b all      r ed
    b          r

before the class, asking frequently for the sounds until thoroly fixed
in mind.

For the second lesson, review "b" and "r" and teach one or two new
consonants. It is better to have short and frequent lessons at first,
than to present too many sounds at once, resulting in confusion.

Suppose "c" is to be taught next and the type word chosen is "cup." It
is not necessary to teach the consonants in the order in which they
occur in the alphabet,--it will depend rather upon the occurrence in the
primer of the words chosen for type words. Write the word "cup." Pupils
recognize it at once as a sight word, and pronounce. Rewrite it,
separating it thus, c up, and let the pupils make an effort to sound the
parts alone. If they fail, sound it for them asking them to repeat it
after you. Proceed as with "ball" and "red," being sure that each one
gives the sound correctly.

(1.) After teaching "c" say, "Who can find a word on the chart beginning
with this sound?" "In your books?" "on the blackboard?" the pupil
sounding the letter as he points to it.

(2) Say, "I'm thinking of another word beginning with "c." "It is
something Grandpa uses in walking." (Cane.) "I'm thinking of something
sweet that you like to eat." (Cake) (Candy) "Of the name of someone in
this class." (Clara) (Carl) "A little yellow bird." (Canary) "You think
of a word beginning with that sound." "Another." "Another."


2. Begin At Once Applying Knowledge of the Sounds Learned.

As new words are met containing known sounds, the pupils should apply
their knowledge of phonics. For example, if the word "catch" appears,
the pupils sound "c," the teacher pronouncing "atch" underlining that
part of the word as she tells it,--the pupil puts these sounds together
and discovers the new word for himself. If the new word is "cab," the
only help from the teacher is the short sound of "a". This given the
pupil sounds "a" and "b" slowly; then faster, until the result of the
blended sounds is "ab." Combine "c" with "ab" in the same manner until
by the blending of the sounds the word is recognized. Only such help
should be given, as will enable the pupil to help himself.

"Ball," "red" and "cup" now become type words with which "b" "r" and "c"
are associated respectively, and from which the pupil gets his "cue" if
he fails to give the sound of the letter at sight. Thus all the
consonants are taught, from suitable sight words which the child has
already learned. They need not however, be the ones given here,--for "b"
it may be "baby," "ball," "boy," or "box," but let it be a word familiar
to the class and easily remembered. For "d" it may be "doll," "day," or
"dog;" for "y", "you", "yellow", etc.

The teacher should previously go through the text and select the words
she wishes to use as type words in teaching the consonant sounds.


3. First Steps in Writing and Spelling.

As each consonant sound is taught its written form may be learned. On
rough manila paper, using waxed crayons, make copies of the letters
about two inches in height, for each pupil. At his desk the child traces
with his fore finger, going over the smooth path again and again--thus
developing psycho-motor co-ordination. Each time the letter is traced,
the pupil sounds it softly, and as soon as he is sure of the form, runs
to the board and writes it.

The writing at first may be entirely at the blackboard, where the
teacher's copy may be reproduced. For the slower ones who have
difficulty with the form, a good practice is to "write it in the air,"
the pupil pointing with index finger and following the teacher as she
writes, also tracing the teacher's copy with pointer, using free, rapid
movement. (Tracing with crayon or pencil tends to slow, cramped writing,
and should not be encouraged.) Thus when the forms of the letters are
learned and associated with the sound, the pupils are able to write
phonetic words from dictation as well as to "spell by sound."


4. Consonant Drill.

(1) With a rubber pen, a set of type, or with black crayola, and
cardboard, a set of consonant cards may be made, one for each sound. On
one side of the card is written or printed the type word with the
consonant sound below; on the other side, the consonant alone, thus:

b all
b

B

The number of cards will increase each day as new sounds are learned.
Rapid daily drill with these cards is most valuable in associating
instantly the sound with its symbol and should be continued until every
child knows every sound. After the analysis the side of the card
containing only the consonant should be used for the drill. But if the
pupil fails to give the right sound, or is unable to give any sound at
all, the card should be reversed and he readily gets the right sound
from the word.

Other devices for teaching the consonants are sometimes used by
successful teachers who do not use the type-words and cards. For
instance, the letter may be associated with its sound in this way:--The
clock says "t"; the angry cat, "f"; the cow says "m"; etc. The
difficulty here is to find suitable symbols for each sound. If, for
example, the sounds of "l", "v" and "sh" are represented by a spinning
wheel, a buzz saw, and a water wheel respectively, and if the child is
not familiar with these symbols, they will not call up a definite sound
in his mind; but if "l" is taught from "little," "sh" from "sheep," and
"v" from "very", (or other familiar words,) there can be no uncertainty
and no time need be spent by the child in laboring to retain and
associate the sounds with unfamiliar symbols.

Not the method, but the motive, is the essential thing. What we want is
that every child should know the consonants thoroly. Get the _motive_,
then use the method that brings the best results with the least
expenditure of time and energy.

(2) For variety in reviewing and fixing the consonant sounds, give
frequent dictation exercises.

a. With all the consonants on the board, the teacher sounds any
consonant, the pupil finds and repeats the sound as he points it out. As
the teacher points, pupils sound, occasionally in concert, and in
individual recitation of the entire list. Individual work should
predominate, to make sure that the pupil is giving the correct sound and
putting forth independent effort.

b. Pupils write sounds as teacher dictates. If a pupil fails to recall
and write the form, the teacher may pronounce the type word and ask the
pupil to sound the initial consonant (tell the first sound in the word).
To illustrate: The teacher pronounces "cup", pupils sound "c", then
write it. If they have mastered the written forms they will enjoy this
exercise.

Children soon acquire the ability and become possessed of the desire to
write whole words. Then the teacher should direct this effort, teaching
the child to visualize (get a picture of the word as a whole) and write
short, simple words.


5. Blending.

When a number of consonant sounds are mastered, practice in blending may
begin. When the need arises--when words are met which begin with a
combination of consonants the blends are taught, e.g., bright--b,
r,--br, br ight, bright. f, l,--fl, fl ower, flower. Keep a separate set
of cards for these blends--and drill upon them as the list grows.

(br, pl, fl, sl, cr, gl, gr, bl, cl, fr, pr, st, tr, str, sp, sw, tw,
sk.)

 

gr ow     dr aw     pl ay
s ky     sm all     sl ay
fl ower     cr ow     st ay
st and     cl ean     fr ay
gl ass     pr ay     tr ay
br own     sp in     str ay
bl ue     sw ing     sl ow
st ore     sl ack     bl ow
tr ack     dw arf     gl ow

The teacher must pronounce the syllables that the children have, as yet,
no power to master, e.g., with the word "grow", (1) the children will
blend g and r, gr; (2) teacher pronounces "ow"; (3) children blend "gr"
and "ow" until they recognise "grow."

Teach also the digraphs sh, ch, th, wh, as they are met in the common
words in use: when, they, chick, etc.

 

sh eep   ch ick   wh at   th at
sh ell   ch ild   wh en   th is
sh y   ch air   wh y   th ese
sh ore   ch ill   wh ere   th ose
sh ine   ch erry   wh ich   th ere
sh ow   ch ildren   th en   th eir
sh e   ch urch   th ey   th ey
sh all   ch ase
sh ould   ch est

 

III. Teach the Short Vowels.

Since more than 60 per cent of the vowels are short, and since short
vowels outnumber long vowels by about four to one, they are taught
first. Teach one vowel at a time by combining with the known consonants.
And what fun it is, when short "a" is introduced, to blend it with the
consonants and listen to discover "word sounds." Henceforth the children
will take delight in "unlocking" new words, without the teacher's help.
She will see to it, of course, that the words are simple and purely
phonetic at first; as:

 

c-a-n, can   h-a-d, had
c-a-p, cap   m-a-t, mat
c-a-t, cat   m-a-n, man
r-a-t, rat   f-a-n, fan
h-a-t, hat   s-a-t, sat

Whole "families" are discovered by placing the vowel with the initial or
the final consonants, thus:

 

ca n   r at   f   an
ca p   h at       an   d
ca t   c at   s   an   d
ca b   b at   st   an   d
ma t   f at   l   an   d
ma n   s at   b   an   d

The children will enjoy forming all the families possible with the known
sounds.

Short "a" Families or Phonograms.

at   an   ap   ad   ack   ag   and   r ang   b ank
b at   c an   c ap   h ad   b ack   b ag   b and   s ang   r ank
c at   m an   g ap   l ad   h ack   f ag   h and   b ang   s ank
f at   p an   l ap   m ad   J ack   j ag   l and   h ang   t ank
m at   t an   m ap   g ad   l ack   l ag   s and   f ang   bl ank
p at   r an   n ap   b ad   p ack   n ag   st and   cl ang   cr ank
N at   f an   r ap   c ad   r ack   r ag   gr and   spr ang   dr ank
s at   b an   s ap   f ad   s ack   s ag   br and   Fr ank
r at   D an   t ap   p ad   t ack   t ag   str and   pl ank
h at   N an   tr ap   s ad   st ack   w ag   th ank
th at   V an   str ap   gl ad   sl ack   st ag
        sn ap   br ad   tr ack   br ag
        wr ap       bl ack   dr ag

After a little drill in analyzing the words of a family, (sounding the
consonant and phonogram separately) they should be pronounced at sight,
analyzing the word only when the pupil fails in pronunciation.

The teacher's chart of phonograms as she works it out for herself may be
something like this.

 

a   ĕ   i   ŏ   ŭ
at   et   it   ot   ut
ack   ed   ick   ock   ub
ad   en   id   od   uck
ag   est   ig   og   ug
an   end   im   op   um
ap   edge   in   ong   un
and   ent   ip   oss   uff
ang   ess   ift       ung
ank   ell   ing       unk
ash       ink       ump
amp       ill       ush
                ust

While this gives the teacher a working chart, it is neither necessary
nor advisable that the above order be always followed in teaching the
phonograms and sounding series of words, nor that they be systematically
completed before other phonograms found in the words of the reading
lessons are taught. Such phonograms as "ound" from "found", "un" from
"run", "ight" from "bright", "est" from "nest", "ark" from "lark", etc.,
may be taught as soon as these sight words are made a part of the
child's reading vocabulary.

    

f ound   r un   br ight
ound   un   ight
s ound   f un   m ight
r ound   s un   r ight
gr ound   b un   f ight
b ound   g un   fr ight
p ound   n un   l ight
f ound   r un   s ight
h ound   s un   sl ight
ar ound   st un   n ight

n est   l ark   c atch
est   ark   atch
b est   d ark   h atch
l est   b ark   m atch
p est   m ark   m atch
r est   h ark   b atch
t est   p ark   l atch
v est   sp ark   p atch
w est   st ark   th atch
cr est   sh ark   scr atch
ch est       sn atch
gu est

Attention is not called here to the various vowel sounds, but the
complete phonogram is taught at sight.

Short "e" Phonograms.

    bed   h en   b end   b ent
    fed   d en   l end   c ent
    led   p en   m end   d ent
    n ed   m en   s end   l ent
    r ed   B en   t end   s ent
    Fr ed   t en   bl end   r ent
    sh ed   wr en   sp end   t ent
    sl ed   th en   tr end   w ent
    bl ed   wh en       sp ent
    gl en
edge   B ess   b ell   sh ell
h edge   l ess   c ell   sm ell
l edge   bl ess   s ell   sp ell
s edge   ch ess   t ell   sw ell
w edge   dr ess   f ell   dw ell
pl edge   pr ess   n ell
sl edge   gu ess   w ell

 

Short "i" Phonograms.

D ick   s ick   cl ick   th ick
k ick   t ick   qu ick   tr ick
l ick   w ick   sl ick
p ick   br ick   st ick
b id   p ig   d im   p in   th in
d id   b ig   h im   t in   tw in
h id   f ig   J im   b in
k id   d ig   r im   f in
l id   r ig   T im   s in
r id   w ig   tr im   w in
sl id   tw ig   br im   ch in
sk id       sk im   gr in
        sl im   sk in
        sw im   sp in
d ip   l ift   s ing   p ink   b ill
h ip   g ift   k ing   l ink   f ill
l ip   s ift   r ing   m ink   h ill
n ip   dr ift   w ing   s ink   J ill
r ip   sh ift   br ing   w ink   k ill
s ip   sw ift   cl ing   bl ink   m ill
t ip   thr ift   sl ing   br ink   p ill
ch ip       st ing   dr ink   t ill
cl ip       str ing   ch ink   w ill
sl ip       spr ing   cl ink   ch ill
dr ip       sw ing   shr ink   sp ill
gr ip       th ing   th ink   st ill
sh ip       wr ing       tr ill
sk ip
tr ip
str ip
wh ip

Short "o" Phonograms.

B ob   n od   c ock   d og
c ob   p od   l ock   h og
r ob   r od   r ock   l og
s ob   h od   s ock   f og
m ob   c od   m ock   fr og
j ob   cl od   bl ock   c og
f ob   pl od   cl ock   j og
kn ob   tr od   cr ock   cl og
thr ob   sh od   fl ock
        kn ock
        st ock

 

h op   t op   sh op
m op   st op   sl op
l op   dr op   pr op
s op   cr op
s ong   l oss
l ong   t oss
d ong   R oss
g ong   m oss
str ong   b oss
wr ong   cr oss
pr ong   fl oss
thr ong   gl oss

Phonograms Containing Short "u".

r ub   d uck   b ug   r un
t ub   l uck   h ug   s un
c ub   t uck   j ug   f un
h ub   cl uck   l ug   b un
cl ub   pl uck   m ug   g un
gr ub   sh uck   p ug   sp un
scr ub   tr uck   r ug   st un
st ub   str uck   t ug   sh un
sn ub       dr ug
        pl ug
        sn ug
dr um   c uff   r ung
pl um   m uff   s ung
ch um   p uff   h ung
g um   h uff   l ung
h um   b uff   cl ung
sc um   bl uff   fl ung
gl um   gr uff   sl ung
    st uff   st ung
        spr ung
        sw ung
        str ung
b unk   j ump   h ush   m ust
h unk   b ump   m ush   j ust
j unk   l ump   r ush   r ust
ch unk   h ump   g ush   d ust
dr unk   p ump   br ush   cr ust
sk unk   d ump   cr ush   tr ust
sp unk   st ump   bl ush   thr ust
tr unk   th ump   pl ush
        thr ush

From the beginning review daily the phonograms taught.

Thus by means of these daily drills in pronunciation, the pupil gains
power in mastering new words. He constantly makes intelligent and
practical application of the knowledge he has gained in pronouncing a
letter or a combination of letters in a certain way, under certain
conditions.

 Diacritical Marks

The child has no need of diacritical marks at this time; indeed he has
little need for them until the fourth year, when the use of the
dictionary is taught. The new dictionaries greatly simplify the matter
of mastering the diacritical marks, and lessen the number needed, by
re-writing unphonetic words in simple phonetic spelling.

During the first three years do not retard the child's progress, and
weaken his power to apply the knowledge which his previous experience
has given him, by marking words to aid him in pronunciation. At best,
the marks are artificial and questionable aids.

 

PHONIC PLAYS

Much necessary drill can be made interesting by infusing the _spirit_ of
play into an exercise that would otherwise be formal.

1. "Hide and Seek"

"Hide and Seek" at once suggests a game. The teacher introduces it
simply by saying: "We'll play these sounds are hiding from us. Who can
find them?"

Place the consonant cards on the blackboard ledge. The teacher writes
any consonant on the board and immediately erases it. A pupil finds the
card containing the same consonant, sounds it, and replaces the card.

Teacher writes several sounds on the board, then erases them. Pupil
finds corresponding sounds on cards, in the order written.

2. "Fishing"

(Fish in pond.) Cards placed in a row on black board ledge. (Catching
fish.) Pupil takes as many as he can sound correctly.

Single and blended consonants, and digraphs written on cardboard cut in
form of fish, and put into the mirror lake on the sand table. Children
"catch fish" in turn.

3. "Guess."

A pupil thinks of a word containing a known phonogram, which is
communicated to the teacher. The child standing before the class then
says, "I am thinking of a word belonging to the "an" family." The word,
we will say, is "fan." A child who is called on asks, "Is it c an?" The
first child replies, "It is not can." Another asks, "Is it m an?" etc.,
until the correct word is discovered.

4. "Run Home."

For reviewing phonograms and fixing the vowel sounds as well, the
following game is used.

Draw pictures of several houses on the board, writing a different
phonogram in each, explaining that these are the names of the families
living there, as, "ed," "eg," "est," "en," etc. Distribute to the class
cards containing a word with one of these endings, and let "the children
run home." Those holding the words ten, pen, men and hen, will run to
the house where "en" lives. The children holding rest, best, nest, etc.,
will group themselves at the house of "est."

Again let several children represent mothers and stand before the class
holding phonograms. As Mother "ed" calls her children, those holding
cards containing red, led, fed, Fred, and bed, will run to her. If a
child belonging to the "est" family should come, she will send back the
stray child, saying pleasantly, "You do not belong in my family." A
little voice drill as practiced in the music lesson may be used here.
The mother calls "Children" on 1 and 8 of the scale (low and high do
thus:

    1-8      8-1

child-dren), the children replying as they come, "We're here."

For individual tests let the mother call out all her children from the
other families, the children coming to her as she calls their card
names.

 

RHYME STORIES

Enliven the phonic drills occasionally by originating little rhymes,
using the words of the series to be reviewed. Write the words on the
board in columns, or upon cards. As the teacher repeats a line of the
jingle, she pauses for the children to supply the rhyme words.

Grandma was taking a cozy nap
Her hands were folded in her (lap)
When she wakened she heard a (tap)
In the maple tree that was full of (sap.)
She soon spied the tapper—he wore a red (cap)
White vest and black coat, and his wings gave a (flap)
As he hopped about with a rap-a-tap-(tap)
What did he want—was he looking for (sap)?
Ah no, but for grubs, which he ate quick as (snap)
Can you name this gay drummer who wears a red (cap)?


II.

As soon as possible introduce a number of phonograms into the same
story.

    I have a little pet
    Who is as black as (jet)
    She sits upon a mat
    And watches for a (rat.)
    Her coat is smooth as silk,
    She likes to drink sweet (milk)
    She grows so fast and fat
    That soon she'll be a (cat)
    Can't you guess? Now what a pity
    'Tis the dearest little (    ).

 

SPELLING BY SOUND

An easy step now, which the children will enjoy is the writing of the
words of given families as a dictation exercise, followed by sentences
as soon as the use of the capital and period have been taught. Such
sentences as the following may be given after a number of short "a"
phonograms are mastered:

    The cat sat on a mat.
    Nan has a fan.
    The cat is fat.
    The cat can see the pan.
    The man has a hat.
    Dan has a bat.
    Dan has a hat and a cap.
    The bag is in the cab.

When phonograms containing the other short vowels are known, words may
be pronounced miscellaneously from different series or families; as,
run, cap, pet, ran, pin, top, followed by sentences made up of
miscellaneous words, as,--

    "Run red hen."
    "Nan has a fan."
    "Get the hat pin."
    "Ned can spin a top."
    "Nat set the trap."
    "Jack run back and get the sack."
    "A fat man got in the hack."
    "Can Sam get the hat?"

 

THE ALPHABET AND ORAL SPELLING

The names of letters should not be formally taught until their sounds
are thoroly fixed in mind; otherwise the names and sounds will be
confused. Pupils who begin by "learning their letters" will be found
spelling out a word (naming over the letters) in order to arrive at the
pronunciation. Attention must be focused on the _sounds only_, at first.
When the consonant sounds are mastered by every member of the class, and
they have gained some proficiency in pronouncing words by blending these
with the short and long vowel sounds, the _names_ of the letters may be
taught, and the alphabet committed to memory in order.

While as a rule, most children learn the majority of the letters
incidentally by the end of the first year, it often happens that some
remain ignorant of the alphabetical order until they come to use the
dictionary, and are greatly handicapped.


 To Associate the Name of the Letter With Its Sound.

(1) The teacher names the letter as she points to it and the children
give the corresponding sound; (2) As the teacher sounds the letter,
pupils name the letter sounded. (3) Repeat with the letters erased from
the board.

Oral spelling may begin _after_ the sounds have first been mastered--and
as soon as the names of the letters are taught. Spell only the phonetic
words at first. The lists of families of words which have been written
from dictation may now be spelled orally.

The spelling recitation may be both oral and written, but written
spelling should predominate the first year. Unphonetic words should be
taught by visualizing--getting the form of the word as a whole. The
teacher writes the word on the board in free rapid hand, pupils observe
for a moment, getting a mental picture of the form; the word is erased
by the teacher, and reproduced on the board by the pupil.

While oral spelling aids the "ear-minded" pupil and gives variety in the
recitation, written spelling should predominate for the reasons that (1)
in practical life, spelling is used almost wholly in expressing thought
in writing; (2) the eye and hand should be trained equally with the ear.
It is often true that good oral spellers will fail in writing the same
words for want of practice. (3) In the written recitation each pupil can
spell a greater number of words and in less time than is possible in
oral spelling.

 

SEAT WORK

1. Distribute pages from magazines or old readers and let pupils
underline words beginning with a certain consonant (the one being
taught). If different colored pencils are used, the same pages can be
used a number of times. When the "m" sound is being taught let all words
beginning with that sound be marked with black; at another seat work
period, words beginning with "b" are marked with "green;" and again,
words beginning with "f" sound are marked with blue pencils, etc.

Underline digraphs, blended consonants, and phonograms.

2. The teacher writes a phonogram on the board and below it all the
consonant sounds from which words may be built. Pupils write the entire
words.

3. Phonograms are written on the board; pupils supply consonants and
write out the words.

4. Have a number of phonograms and three or four sets of consonants in
envelopes. Give an envelope to each child and let him build the words on
his desk. Duplicate copies can be made on a hectograph, one set for each
lesson; then if one envelope from each set is preserved, those
miscellaneous lessons can be used in review for a long time, each child
using a different set each time.

5. Write on the board lists of words ending in various phonograms and
let the children re-write them, arranging in columns according to
phonograms.

6. Write families from memory.

 

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS

1. At least two daily periods should be given to phonics. The first
lessons will be short, but after some advance has been made, ten to
fifteen minutes should be given.

2. As far as possible let the words for phonic drill be those that will
occur in the new reading lessons.

3. Constantly review all familiar sounds, phonograms, digraphs, blends,
etc., when met in new words, and so teach pupils to apply their
knowledge of phonics.

4. Teaching them to "pantomime" the sounds--representing them mutely by
movement of the lips, tongue and palate, will aid them in silent study
at their seats.

5. By the end of the first year the pupil's phonetic knowledge, combined
with his vocabulary of sight words and his power to discover a new word,
either phonetically or by the context, ought to enable him to read
independently any primer, and to read during the year from eight to
twelve or more primers and first readers.

6. In reading, pupils should be taught to get the meaning chiefly by
context--by the parts which precede or follow the difficult word and are
so associated with it as to throw light upon its meaning.

7. When a word cannot be pronounced phonetically, the teacher should
assist by giving the sound needed, but the pupil will soon discover that
by using his wits in phonics as in other things, he can get the new word
for himself by the sense of what he is reading, e.g., in the sentence,
"The farmer came into the field" he meets the new word "field."
Naturally a second year pupil, who has learned the reasons for sounding
will apply the long sound of "i;"--as he reads it does not make sense,
so he tries short "i." Still the sentence is meaningless, so he tries
again with "e" and reads a sentence which satisfies him, because the
meaning is clear.

If the first year pupil pronounces the word "coat" as co-at (recognizing
the last combination as a member of the "at" family) the teacher will
underline and call his attention to the digraph "oa" which he has
already learned to pronounce as long "o." Most pupils however, meeting
the word in a sentence--as, "The caterpillar's coat is green"--would, if
reading thotfully recognize the word by the context.

8. Drill on obscure sounds should be omitted the first year. Unphonetic
words should be taught as sight words: as: one, many, been, said, they,
ought, eight.

9. Begin to combine words and syllables into longer words as soon as
possible: door-step, in-deed, hand-some, be-fore, ham-mer-ing,
in-no-cent, for-get-ful, car-pen-ter, side-walk, mis-take.

10. Give time increasingly to analytic-synthetic word study,
e.g.--"eight" and "rain" are taught as sight words.

 

      eigh t   r ain
Analysis:     eigh       ain
    w eigh     p ain
    w eight     pl ain
Synthesis:   n eigh     com plain
    n eigh bor   com plain ing

 

ARTICULATION

Exercises to correct faulty articulation and secure flexibility should
be given frequently. Constant vigilance is necessary in overcoming the
common errors shown in the following examples.

    "I will eat you," said the troll. (not "e-chew")
    Dear little baby, close your eye. (not "clo-zhure eye")
    "I will then," said Red Hen, and she did. (not "an' she did.")
    Put your right hand in. (not "put chure")
    --you, and you, and you. (an' Jew.)
    Father will meet you (meat chew) at the station.
    The leaves turned to red and gold. (red Dan gold)
    "No matter what you hear, (what chew) no matter what you see,
        Raggylug, don't you move." (don't chew)
    Tender flowers come forth to greet her. (gree-ter)
    It is not at all (a-tall) like the mother bird.

Have the pupils practice such exercises as:--

    Did you? Don't you? Would you? Should you? Could you? (Not "did Jew,"
        "don't chew" etc.)
    Where shall I meet you? (not meat chew)
    When shall I meet you?
    She sells sea shells.

Pupils usually have difficulty with words ending in sts, dth, pth. Lists
of such words should be drilled upon:--

Nests, vests, posts, hosts, boasts, fists, mists, frosts, length,
breadth, depth.

    "He thrusts his fists against the posts,
    And still insists he sees the ghosts."

(If necessary show the pupils how to adjust the vocal organs to make the
different sounds.)

    m, n, ng (nasal)

    p, b, w, m (lips)
    f, v (lips and teeth)
    t, d, s, z, n (tongue and hard palate.)
    j, ch, (tongue and hard palate-back)
    k, g, ng (tongue and soft palate.)
    y, l (tongue, hard palate and soft palate.)
    p, b, d, t, j, k, h, g, ch (momentary)
    w, f, v, s, l, r, y, th, sh (continuous)

The majority of children learn the sounds by imitation and repetition.
The above is to help the teacher in giving the sounds correctly.

 


SECOND YEAR

 

 I. Review Single and Blended Consonants, Digraphs, Short and Long
Vowels, and All Phonograms.

 

II. Continue Pronouncing Exercises, Teaching New Phonograms.

Continue word study by the analytic-synthetic process. These phonic
drills will deal largely with the new words that occur in the daily
reading lessons.

 

III. Syllabication.

In mastering the pronunciation of new words, pupils should acquire the
habit of analyzing them into syllables.

The ear must be trained to _hear_ syllables, they should be _separately
pronounced_
, and _clearly imaged_. This makes for effective spelling
later. Most of the difficulties in spelling are removed when the habit
of breaking up a complex word into its elements is acquired.

 

re mem ber   ther mom e ter
sep a rate   in de pen dence
dan de lion   mul ti pli ca tion
beau ti ful   re frig er a tor


IV. Teach the Long Vowel Sounds.

We have found that the short vowels predominate in the English language.
The long vowel sounds come next in frequency. When the child has
mastered the letters and combinations representing these two sounds, he
is able to recognize a large majority of the phonetic words in our
language.

Phonetic words follow definite rules of pronunciation. These rules are
not to be formally taught in the first and second years, but pointed out
by examples, so that the visual and auditory image may be associated.

To illustrate: When there are two or more vowels in a word of one
syllable, the first vowel is long, and the last silent, as: came, leaf,
coat, rain.

"When there is one vowel in the word and it is the last, it is long,"
as: me, he, fly.

All vowels are short unless modified by position.

Have the children notice the effect of final "e" upon some of their
short vowel words. These lists will furnish good pronunciation drills.

 

mat   mate   bit   bite   tap   tape
pan   pane   rod   rode   fad   fade
fat   fate   hat   hate   mad   made
can   cane   pin   pine   rat   rate
not   note   rob   robe   pet   Pete
man   mane   din   dine   dim   dime
cap   cape   fin   fine   spin   spine
hid   hide   mop   mope   kit   kite
hop   hope   plum   plume   rip   ripe
tub   tube           cub   cube
                cut   cute
                tun   tune

Call attention to the vowel digraphs in the same way: ea, ai, oa, ay.

 

deaf   seat   bean
neat   leaves   meat
heat   peach   lean
please   eagle   clean
eat   seam   teach
mean   stream   glean
read   squeal   wean

While there are exceptions, as in the words "head" and "bread," the
digraph "ea" has the sound of long "e" in nearly three-fourths of the
words in which it occurs and should be so taught. The visual image "ea"
should call up the auditory image of long "e." When the child meets the
exceptions the context must be relied on to aid him.

Likewise in the following list, the new fact to be taught is the digraph
"ai" having the long sound of "a." Blending the initial and final
consonants with this, the pupil pronounces the new list of words without
further aid.

 

rain   chain   faith   daisy
wait   main   paint   daily
nail   brain   faint   plainly
pail   drain   snail   waist
pain   claim   frail   complain
pain   train   praise   sailor
aim   plain   quail   raise
maid   braid   sprain   trail
mail

The digraph "oa" and "ay" may be taught with equal ease the first year.
There is no reason for deferring them; they should be taught as soon as
the children have need for them.

 

coat   toast   roar
load   goat   roam
float   road   moan
toad   roam   throat
oar   boat   oat meal
croak   soar   foam
loaf   soap   coarse
loaves   groan   board
goal   boast   cloak
coach   poach   roast

say   day   may   gay
hay   play   slay   pray
lay   clay   dray   gray
nay   bray   way   stay
pay   tray   sway   spray
ray   stray   jay   stray

 

LONG VOWEL PHONOGRAMS

(These lists are for rapid pronunciation drills.)

 

c ame   f ade   f ace   sh ape
l ame   m ade   l ace   gr ape
g ame   w ade   p ace   m ate
n ame   bl ade   r ace   d ate
s ame   gr ade   br ace   f ate
t ame   sh ade   Gr ace   g ate
bl ame   sp ade   pl ace   h ate
fl ame   gl ade   sp ace   K ate
sh ame   tr ade   tr ace

c age   b ake   s ale   l ate
p age   c ake   b ale   r ate
r age   l ake   p ale   cr ate
s age   m ake   t ale   gr ate
w age   r ake   sc ale   pl ate
st age   s ake   st ale   sk ate
    t ake   wh ale   st ate
    w ake   g ale   g ave
c ane   dr ake   d ale   s ave
l ane   fl ake   c ape   c ave
m ane   qu ake   t ape   p ave
p ane   sh ake   cr ape   r ave
v ane   sn ake   dr ape   w ave
cr ane   st ake   scr ape   br ave
pl ane   br ake       gr ave
            sh ave
            sl ave
            st ave
            cr ave

 

b e   h eed   s eek
h e   s eed   m eek
m e   w eed   w eek
w e   r eed   ch eek
sh e   bl eed   cr eek
th e   br eed   sl eek
tr ee   gr eed   p eek
s ee   sp eed   Gr eek
b ee   st eed   f eet
th ee   fr eed   b eet
fl ee   f eel   m eet
kn ee   p eel   fl eet
fr ee   h eel   gr eet
thr ee   r eel   sh eet
gl ee   kn eel   sl eet
sk ee   st eel   str eet
d eed   wh eel   sw eet
n eed
f eed
p eep   d eem
d eep   s eem
k eep   t eem
ch eep   br eeze
w eep   fr eeze
cr eep   sn eeze
sh eep   squ eeze
sl eep   wh eeze
st eep
sw eep
d eer   m ice   pr ide   kn ife
ch eer   n ice   gl ide   str ife
qu eer   r ice   gu ide   h igh
sh eer   pr ice   sl ide   s igh
st eer   sl ice   str ide   n igh
sn eer   sp ice   d ie   th igh
gr een   tr ice   t ie   l ight
qu een   tw ice   l ie   m ight
pr een   r ide   d ied   r ight
scr een   s ide   dr ied   br ight
w een   h ide   fr ied   f ight
spl een   t ide   sp ied   n ight
s een   w ide   l ife   s ight
k een   br ide   w ife
        f ife

 

t ight   f ind   t ire
fr ight   m ind   w ire
sl ight   b ind   f ire
kn ight   r ind   h ire
    w ind   m ire
l ike   bl ind   sp ire
d ike   gr ind   squ ire
p ike
h ike   f ine   k ite
t ike   d ine   b ite
sp ike   m ine   m ite
str ike   n ine   qu ite
p ine   sm ite
p ile   v ine   sp ite
t ile   br ine   spr ite
m ile   sh ine   wh ite
N ile   sp ine   wr ite
f ile   sw ine
sm ile   th ine   f ive
st ile   tw ine   h ive
wh ile   wh ine   d ive
        l ive
d ime   r ipe   dr ive
l ime   p ipe   str ive
t ime   w ipe   thr ive
ch ime   sn ipe
sl ime   tr ipe   m y
pr ime   str ipe   b y
        fl y
        cr y

 

dr y   c old   b one   ch ose
fr y   s old   dr one   th ose
pr y   b old   ph one   cl ose
sh y   m old   sh one   w ove
sk y   t old   thr one   dr ove
sl y   f old       gr ove
sp y   g old   r ope   cl ove
spr y   h old   h ope   st ove
st y   sc old   d ope
tr y       sl ope   h oe
wh y   h ole       t oe
    p ole   c ore   J oe
r obe   m ole   m ore   f oe
gl obe   s ole   p ore   w oe
r ode   st ole   t ore
j oke   wh ole   w ore   d oor
p oke   r oll   s ore   fl oor
w oke   tr oll   ch ore
br oke   str oll   sh ore   m ow
ch oke       sn ore   r ow
sm oke   c olt   st ore   s ow
sp oke   b olt       b ow
str oke   j olt   t orn   bl ow
    v olt   w orn   sl ow
        sh orn   sn ow
    h ome       cr ow
    t one   r ose   fl ow
    st one   n ose   gl ow
        h ose   gr ow
        p ose   kn ow
            sh ow
thr ow   t ube   bl ue
s own   c ube   d ue
bl own   m ule   h ue
gr own   f ume   c ue
fl own   pl ume   gl ue
thr own   J une   fl ue
    t une
    c ure
    p ure

The Diphthongs oi, oy, ou, ow.

 

oi   oy   m ound   ow
b oil   b oy   gr ound   c ow
s oil   j oy   c ount   n ow
t oil   t oy   m ount   h ow
c oil   R oy   h our   b ow
br oil   tr oy   fl our   br ow
sp oil   ou   h ouse   f owl
        m ouse   h owl
v oice   l oud   bl ouse   gr owl
ch oice   cl oud   p out   sc owl
c oin   pr oud   sh out   d own
j oin   c ouch   sp out   g own
j oint   p ouch   spr out   t own
p oint   s ound   st out   br own
n oise   b ound   tr out   cl own
m oist   r ound   m outh   cr own
    f ound   s outh   dr own
    w ound       fr own

DIGRAPHS

(For rapid pronunciation drills.)

 

sh   ch   th   wh   th
sh eep   ch ick   bath   wh en   then
sh ell   ch ild   both   wh y   they
sh y   ch air   doth   wh ere   these
sh ore   ch ill   mirth   wh ich   those
sh ine   ch erry   worth   wh at   the
sh ow   ch ildren   birth   wh ile   thy
sh e   ch urch   tooth   wh ose   that
sh all   ch ase   loth   wh ite   this
sh ould   ch est   girth   wh ale   thus
sh ake   ch ange   thin   wh eat   thine
sh ame   ch alk   thick   wh eel   there
sh ape   ch ain   think   wh ack   their
sh are   ch ance   throat   wh ip   them
sh ark   ch arge   thorn   wh irl   though
sh arp   ch ap   three   wh et   thou
sh awl   ch apel   third   wh ey
sh ed   ch apter   thaw   wh isper
sh ear   ch arm       wh istle
sh epherd   ch eck


THIRD YEAR

 

I. Rules or Reasons for Sounds.

(The effect of the position of the letter upon its sound.)

 

II. Effect of "r" Upon Vowels.

 

III. Equivalents.

 

IV. Teach Vowel Sounds Other Than Long and Short Sounds, by Analyzing
Known Words and Phonograms.

Pupils know the phonogram "ark," learned when the following list of
words was pronounced: bark, dark, hark, lark, mark, park, shark, etc.
Attention is now called to the long Italian "a" sound (two dots above)
and other lists pronounced; as, farm, barn, sharp, charm. Broad "a" (two
dots below) is taught by recalling the familiar phonogram "all" and the
series: ball, fall, call, tall, small, etc., pronounced. Also other
lists containing this sound: as, walk, salt, caught, chalk, haul, claw,
cause.

(The rules for sounds apply to the individual syllables in words of more
than one syllable as well as to monosyllables.)

 

HOW TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN VOWELS AND CONSONANTS

Before the rules for the sounds are taken up, it will be necessary that
the pupils know how to distinguish the vowels from the consonants.

Have the vowels on the board, also lists of words, and drill on finding
the vowels in the lists. The teacher says, "These letters are called
vowels." "How many vowels are there?" "Find a vowel in this
word"--pointing to one of the words in the lists. As the pupil finds it
he says, "This is a vowel." Find the vowels in all the words in the
lists.

 

PHONICS AND LANGUAGE

When the vowels and consonants can be distinguished, pupils can be
taught the use of the articles "a" and "an".

"An" is used before words beginning with vowels; "a" before words
beginning with consonants. Lists of words are placed on the board to be
copied, and the proper article supplied.

 

apple   ball
stem   eye
peach   owl
orange   flower
table   uncle
    ink-stand

Use the article "the" with the same list of words in oral expression,
pronouncing "the" with the long sound of "e" before words beginning with
vowels, as "The apple," "The ink-stand."

The apple is on the table.
The peach is ripe.
The flower and the orange are for you.
The owl has bright eyes.
The ice is smooth and hard.
Grandfather sits in the arm chair.
Is the envelope sealed?
The old man leans on the cane.

 

RULES OR REASONS FOR SOUNDS

The real difficulty in phonics lies in the fact that the pronunciation
of the English language abounds in inconsistencies. Its letters have no
fixed values and represent different sounds in different words.

While there are but twenty-six letters in the English alphabet there are
forty-four elementary sounds in the English language.

Thus far but one sound for each consonant has been taught and
emphasized. Incidentally the fact that some of the letters have more
than one sound has been discovered, as c in city, g in gentle,--but now
definite teaching is given concerning them. The new sound is taught with
its diacritical mark and the reason given, e.g. "c before e, i, or y is
soft."

When a reason or rule for marking is given, lists of words illustrating
the rule should be sounded and pronounced. The teacher marks the word as
the reason is given. Lists of words may be marked by the pupils as a
dictation exercise.

The above use of _diacritical marks_ does not apply to the pernicious
practice of marking words to aid in pronunciation, but to show the
purpose of marks, which is merely to indicate the sound.

Teach that the sound of the letter depends upon its position in the
word, and not upon the diacritical marks
.

 

REASONS FOR SOUNDS

1. When there is one vowel in the word and it is at the last, it is
long.

 

me   he   my   sky
be   the   by   cry
we   she   fly   try

2. One vowel in the word, not at the last, is short; as, mat, nest,
pond.

(Refer to short vowel lists to test this rule.)

3. When there are two or more vowels in a syllable, or a word of one
syllable the first vowel is long, and the last are silent; as: mate,
sneeze, day. (Teacher marks the long and silent vowels as the reason for
the sound is given.)

Children mark these words and give reason: game, kite, make, coat, meat,
wait.

After rules (1 to 3) are clearly developed, apply them by marking and
pronouncing these words and giving reasons.

 

coat   man   neat
he   nine   box
sun   feel   kite
she   run   me
take   we   seam
heat   bit   tan
bite   mad   made
take   cape   the
mane   cap   lake

Rule 4.

When double consonants occur, the last is silent; tel_l_, bac_k_.

 

back   bell   kill   dress   duck
Jack   fell   till   Jess   tack
pack   Nell   fill   less   press
lack   Bell   pill   neck   luck
sack   sell   will   Bess   still
tack   tell   hill   block   stick
shall   well   mill   peck   trill
shell   yell   rock   clock   struck

Rule 5.

T before ch is silent: ca_t_ch.

 

hatch   switch   ditch
match   stretch   pitch
latch   thatch   stitch
patch   sketch   fetch
hitch   scratch   match
watch   snatch   crutch

Rule 6.

N before g, the sound of ng ([n=]): sing, also n before
k--[n=]g,--i[n=]k.

    bang       song         lank
    rang       long         bank
    sang       strong       sank
    hang       thing        tank
    wink       cling        sung
    sink       swing        lung
    think      sing         swung
    brink      sting        stung

Rule 7.

Initial k before n is silent--_k_nife.

 

knee   knew   know
knack   knot   knock
knob   knell   knife
knelt   known   kneel

Rule 8.

Initial w before r is silent--_w_rite.

    wry        wren         written
    wring      wreak        wrist
    wrong      wrote        wriggle
    write      wretch       wrench
    wrap       wreath       writing

Rule 9.

Initial g before n is silent--_g_naw.

    gnat            gnarl            gnu
    gnaw            gneiss           gnome

Rule 10.

C before e, i or y is soft.--cent, city, cypress.

    face            cent             nice
    lace            cell             price
    place           ice              slice
    race            rice             twice
    Grace           mice             cypress
    cylinder        cyclone

(Hard c is found before a, o, and u or a consonant.)

Rule 11.

G before e, i or y is soft,--gentle, giant, gypsy. (Get and give are
common exceptions.)

    age             gentle           gem
    cage            gin              gypsy
    page            gill             giraffe
    rage            ginger           wage
    sage            giant            gipsy

Exercise--Pronounce and mark the following words, and tell whether they
contain the soft or hard sounds of g.

    go         gay        gate       globe
    dog        bag        garden     glass
    gentle     cage       general    forge
    geese      gather     wagon      glove
    gem        game       George     forget
    germ       Gill       Grace      grain

Note effect of final e on hard g.

    rag        rage       sag        sage
    wag        wage       stag       stage

Rule 12.

I before gh--i is long and gh silent--ni_gh_t.

    light           right           fight
    night           bright          fright
    sight           high            slight
    might           thigh           flight
    tight           sigh            plight

Rule 13.

Final y in words of more than one syllable is short,--cherry.

 

dainty   pity   ferry
plainly   city   lightly
rainy   naughty   berry
daisy   thirty   merry
daily   dreary   cherry

Rule 14.

Final e in words of more than one syllable is silent.--gentl_e_,
Nelli_e_.

Rule 15.

Effect of r upon vowels.

 

er̃   ir̃   or̃   ur̃
her   bird   work   urn
fern   sir   word   turn
term   stir   worm   hurt
herd   girl   world   purr
jerk   first   worst   burn
ever   chirp   worth   churn
serve   whirl   worse   burst
perch   thirst   worship   church
kernel   fir   worthy   curve
verse   firm   worry   curb
verb   third       fur
germ   birth       blur
herb   birch       curd
stern   thirty       curl

 

OTHER EQUIVALENTS

        a==e                [(a]==[(e]

 

they   eight   care   heir
obey   weight   bare   their
prey   freight   fare   there
weigh   neigh   hair   where
sleigh   veins   fair   stair
reign   whey   chair   pear
skein   rein       pair

      a==[)o]        a==[(o]           au==aw==ou

 

what   not   call   nor   haul   ought
was   odd   raw   for   fault   bought
watch   cot   want   corn   cause   sought
wasp   got   walk   cord   pause   caw
wash   hop   salt   short   caught   saw
drop   dog   hall   storm   naught   paw
spot   fog   draw   horse   naughty   draw
        talk   morn   thought   thaw

      ou==ow        [=ew]==[=u]

 

our   how   dew   due
out   now   few   hue
hour   cow   mew   blue
flour   bow   new   June
trout   plow   Jew   tune
shout   owl   pew   plume
mouth   growl   hue   pure
sound   brown   glue   flute
mouse   crowd
ground   flower
house   drown

      ew==[=oo]==o==[u..]       o==oo==[u..]

 

o=ŭ   oy=oi
come   fun   boy   oil
none   gun   joy   soil
son   run   Roy   voice
dove   sup   toy   spoil
love   cup   troy   joint
some   sun   join   point
ton   hum   coin   choice
won   drum   noise   noise
does   plum   toil   moist
touch   nut
glove   shut
month   much
none   must

 

o=ŭ   oy=oi
come   fun   boy   oil
none   gun   joy   soil
son   run   Roy   voice
dove   sup   toy   spoil
love   cup   troy   joint
some   sun   join   point
ton   hum   coin   choice
won   drum   noise   noise
does   plum   toil   moist
touch   nut
glove   shut
month   much
none   must

 


FOURTH YEAR

 

I. Review and continue to apply the principles of pronunciation, with a
more complete mastery of the vowel and consonant sounds as found in
Webster's dictionary.

 

II. Teach the diacritical marks found in the dictionary to be used. The
marks needed will be found at the foot of each page of the dictionary.

 

III. Teach the use of the dictionary.

(1) See that every child owns, if possible, one of the new dictionaries,
in which unphonetic words are respelled phonetically.

(2) See that all know the alphabet in order.

(3) Pupils practice finding names in the telephone directory, catalogs,
reference books, etc.

(4) Practice arranging lists of words in alphabetical order, as in the
following dictation exercise.

Rewrite these words in the order in which they would occur in the
dictionary.

 

chance   value
alarm   hurdle
green   evergreen
window   feather
indeed   leave
sapwood   monkey
bruise   kernel
double   jelly

Also lists like these:--a step more difficult.

 

arbor   angry
alarm   after
artist   age
afford   apron
apple   appear
athletic   approve
assist   answer
always   anchor

After teaching the alphabetical order, with dictionary in hand, have the
pupil trace the word to its letter, then to its page.

Having found his way to the word, he must now learn to read what the
dictionary has to tell him about it. His attention is called to
syllabification as well as to diacritical marks. (Those found at the
foot of the page will furnish the key to pronunciation.)

He finds that his dictionary is a means of learning not only the
pronunciation of words, but their meaning and spelling. Later, as soon
as the parts of speech are known, he should learn the various uses of
words--their grammatical uses, derivation, etc., and come to regard the
dictionary as one of his commonest tools, as necessary as other books of
reference.

But here the teacher's task is not done. Provided with the key to the
mastery of symbols, her pupils may still fail to use this key to unlock
the vast literary treasures in store for them. They must be taught
_what
to read_
, as well as _how to read_. They must be introduced to the
school library and if possible to the public library. Dr. Elliot has
said: "The uplifting of the democratic masses depends upon the
implanting at school of the taste for good reading."

Moreover that teacher does her pupils the most important and lasting
service who develops in them not only
_an appreciation of good
literature_
, but _the habit of reading it_.


    Transcriber's note:

    Non-ascii diacritical marks represented as follows:
    [(a]  a  below inverted breve
    [)e]  e  below breve
    [(e]  e  below inverted breve
    [)o]  o  below breve
    [(o]  o  below inverted breve
    [)u]  u  below breve
    [=u]  u  below macron
    [n=]  n  above macron
    [u..] u  above diaresis
    [~er] er below tilde
    [~ir] ir below tilde
    [~or] or below tilde
    [~ur] ur below tilde
    [=ew] ew below macron
    [=oo] oo below macron

 
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